BAGGED OR RUBBED JOINT
A flat mortar joint finish often lightly
wiped over with sacking. This should not be used to achieve a neat
Broken bricks or purpose cut bricks, which
are used to fill in.
Light or dense concrete blocks are generally used in masonry that
is hidden such as within the inner skin of cavity work. They may,
however, be used 'architecturally' in public buildings. Blocks most
often measure 440 x 215mm, which is equivalent to 6 standard bricks.
Lightweight blocks have insulation properties and are often made from
aerated concrete where pulverised fuel ash is the aggregate. These
are usually referred to as breeze blocks and common trade names include
Theralite and Celcon. Harder concrete blocks may have hollow centres
which can be filled with foam insulation. Very dense concrete is used
in heavy load bearing blocks, which can be up to 225mm thick. These
can be quite heavy to lift and require care when laying to avoid squeezing
out the mortar.
general term given to the pattern of bricks laid or the method used
to join new walls.
standard brick will measure (mm) 215(length) x 102(width) x 65(height).
Builders will always request to see designs in brickwork sizes to
avoid part cuts.
A shallow, rounded and inwards mortar joint finish used for bricks
and blocks, so named as it was originally created from the shape of
an old bucket handle.
outer brickwork is in place to keep out the weather and usually has
no structural implications. The inner blockwork carries the floor
and roof loads. The gap between prevents damp crossing. It is important
to maintain a cavity that is clear and unbridged.
short name for a damp proof course originally made from slate, lead
or bitumen treated hessian. This was prone to melting in warm weather
and has now been replaced with high performance plastic. The damp
proof course may be inserted in brickwork to stop damp rising or sinking.
If at high level, the latter is usually accompanied by a flashing.
In garden walls, the damp course is located beneath the top of the
wall, often as a tile, to prevent the wall becoming saturated and
damaged by frost. In house walls, the damp proof course is usually
placed 150mm above ground level. This distance must be maintained
to avoid damp being transferred through rain splashing.
Natural salts, which occur in the material
used to construct bricks, will sometimes be washed out by rain and
appear as white stains. Although this is of no consequence to the
wall's integrity, it is always disappointing and unsightly. Before
choosing any brick, take care to find out if this is a feature of
the brick and look at examples that have been in place for between
2 and 5 years.
out facing side of brickwork that will be on show and will consequently
need to be built neatly.
A brickwork bond where the stretcher face
is alternated with the header face on the first line and on the
course above, the header is positioned over the centre of the stretcher
face below, so that the courses alternate.
Mortar produced from sand and cement mixed
with lime to produce a lower strength, more workable mix. This is
well suited to softer bricks and
useful where minor movements in walls may show up as cracked bricks
if a hard mortar is used.
made stock bricks, where the soft clay from south-eastern England
is thrown into the pre-sanded mould by hand. The finished effect will
be horizontal ripples, most often mid-to-dark red with blue markings.
end of a brick. If laid together, this would be referred to as a header
concrete or steel beam positioned over doors or other openings to
support the bricks/blocks above.
ends to bricks. If you look at the outside of a completed wall, the
line and verticality of the perps is a good indication of the quality
Nickname for mortar.
angle corners of brickwork that are built up at the start of the job
to form the brick lines and courses. Less experienced bricklayers
will sometimes fill-in between the quoins.
Soft red bricks that can easily be cut to
shape, such as within an arch. These bricks should always be used
with a soft lime mortar.
silicate bricks which are almost white in colour. Trouble may be experienced
with spalling (the breaking up of the face of bricks), particularly
if exposed to salt or frost.
made in a mould either by hand or machine. The bricks are soft and
mostly used in face work. The hand made bricks usually have a rippled
appearance. Stocks usually have a frog, which is the indent on one
long side. 'Frog up' is the normal method of laying. The Romans brought
the stock brick to England.
long face of a brick. Stretcher bond is the most common bonding where
each brick is laid length ways in the wall, with the joint of the
course above in the centre of the stretcher face.
A mortar joint usually on brickwork, requiring
a good level of skill to achieve neatly. The mortar is ruled smooth
with a small trowel so that the top is slightly in from the brick
face and the bottom is flush with the brick face. Sometimes this
is reversed but, in doing so, water may be trapped on the small
ledge formed. This joint attracts shadow lines and can look the
A steel, galvanised or better stainless, link between inner and out
skins (see cavity).
is an extruded brick of modern style with a slightly dragged appearance,
which is chopped to size with wire. Instead of frogs, wire cut bricks
tend to be perforated on the mortar faces.