The slim posts located under the handrail in a staircase, commonly
A window that has hinged opening sashes.
A large flat nail stamped out of a sheet of soft steel, mostly used
for fixing timber to lightweight blocks.
A term often ambiguously used to describe softwood. The correct meaning
is a size of squared timber measuring between 2 and 4 inches thick
and 9 and 11 inches wide.
Regularity or strength graded.
Wood from deciduous broad-leafed trees such as oak, beech, mahogany
and maple. Rarely used structurally nowadays. The cell structure makes
it difficult to absorb preservatives.
Structural member running horizontally and supporting a ceiling or
The vertical strut of a window frame or a glazed doorframe which sits
The vertical post at the top and bottom of a staircase where the handrail
Prepared all round, i.e. planned timber.
A horizontal roof member located part way up a rafter. The purpose
of the purlin is to prevent the rafter from sagging under load and,
in turn, the purlin may be supported by posts to transfer the purlin
loads onto internal walls below and so to the foundations. This will
prevent the outer walls from bearing all the roof loads.
The structural member of a roof which supports the weathering materials
underneath. It would still be called a rafter in a flat roof.
The vertical part of a stair step.
The opening part of a window.
Splits in wood, usually running with the grain, caused by shrinkage
through excessive or rapid drying.
The wood of (mostly) conifer trees such as pine, fir, cedar, larch,
spruce, etc. Sometimes also referred to in the different types as
hemlock, whitewood and redwood. Most of this wood is resinous and
has natural water resistance. The woods are less prone to shrinkage
than hardwoods. Some of the softwoods (such as yew) may be physically
harder than some hardwoods (such as ash).
The vertical edge parts of a doorframe. The hinge side is the hanging
stile and the opposite side, the lock stile.
The side of a stair where treads, risers and balusters are fitted.
A highly toxic propriety blend of copper and arsenic which is pressure-impregnated
into softwood as a preservative.
The horizontal member of a window frame.
The horizontal part of a stair step.
A pre-site manufactured roof member in a triangular shape, in which
comprises rafters, struts and joists. Factory jointed with metal or
plywood plates. The members are comparatively slim and it is important
not to remove any part without specialist advice.
A turning tread in the stair.