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Carpenter
Baluster Casement Cut Nail
Deal Graded Hardwood
Joist Muntin Newel
Par Purlin Rafter
Riser Sash Shakes
Softwood Stile String
Tanalised Transom Tread
Trussed Roof Winder Wrot
BALUSTER
The slim posts located under the handrail in a staircase, commonly termed banisters.
CASEMENT
A window that has hinged opening sashes.
CUT NAIL
A large flat nail stamped out of a sheet of soft steel, mostly used for fixing timber to lightweight blocks.
DEAL
A term often ambiguously used to describe softwood. The correct meaning is a size of squared timber measuring between 2 and 4 inches thick and 9 and 11 inches wide.
GRADED
Regularity or strength graded.
HARDWOOD
Wood from deciduous broad-leafed trees such as oak, beech, mahogany and maple. Rarely used structurally nowadays. The cell structure makes it difficult to absorb preservatives.
JOIST
Structural member running horizontally and supporting a ceiling or floor.
MUNTIN
The vertical strut of a window frame or a glazed doorframe which sits between panes.
NEWEL
The vertical post at the top and bottom of a staircase where the handrail is jointed.
PAR
Prepared all round, i.e. planned timber.
PURLIN
A horizontal roof member located part way up a rafter. The purpose of the purlin is to prevent the rafter from sagging under load and, in turn, the purlin may be supported by posts to transfer the purlin loads onto internal walls below and so to the foundations. This will prevent the outer walls from bearing all the roof loads.
RAFTER
The structural member of a roof which supports the weathering materials underneath. It would still be called a rafter in a flat roof.
RISER
The vertical part of a stair step.
SASH
The opening part of a window.
SHAKES
Splits in wood, usually running with the grain, caused by shrinkage through excessive or rapid drying.
SOFTWOOD
The wood of (mostly) conifer trees such as pine, fir, cedar, larch, spruce, etc. Sometimes also referred to in the different types as hemlock, whitewood and redwood. Most of this wood is resinous and has natural water resistance. The woods are less prone to shrinkage than hardwoods. Some of the softwoods (such as yew) may be physically harder than some hardwoods (such as ash).
STILE
The vertical edge parts of a doorframe. The hinge side is the hanging stile and the opposite side, the lock stile.
STRING
The side of a stair where treads, risers and balusters are fitted.
TANALISED
A highly toxic propriety blend of copper and arsenic which is pressure-impregnated into softwood as a preservative.
TRANSOM
The horizontal member of a window frame.
TREAD
The horizontal part of a stair step.
TRUSSED ROOF
A pre-site manufactured roof member in a triangular shape, in which comprises rafters, struts and joists. Factory jointed with metal or plywood plates. The members are comparatively slim and it is important not to remove any part without specialist advice.
WINDER
A turning tread in the stair.
WROT
Planed timber.
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