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Anti-vacuum Air-lock Back-siphon
Basin Cistern Compression
Copper Down pipe Header
Indirect tank P Trap Pressure System
Riser S Trap Sink
U Bend UPVC  
ANTI-VACUUM
A one-way valve, which allows air into a drainage system, found by a basin or at the top of an internal soil pipe to balance pressures and prevent the water in U-bends being sucked out.
AIR-LOCK
A bubble of air that gets to the top section of piping and cannot be pushed out by the pipe contents and reduces the flow of the content of the pipe.
BACK-SIPHON
Sometimes if a plug of water is traveling down a drain, it will act as a piston and lower the pressure behind it, pulling out the water in U-bends. This is known as a back-siphon.
BASIN
An item of the sanitary ware in bathrooms fed by a cistern - a closed-lid tank located in the roof space.
CISTERN
The open vessel with removable lid within which the inlet of new water is controlled by a ball float valve. Cisterns exist to maintain a back-up water supply for toilets in the event of water failure and to prevent back siphonage into the fresh water mains.
COMPRESSION
A copper or stainless steel pipe joint fitting that forms a seal by internally crushing a soft copper ring onto the pipe. Easy to fit and remove, but more expensive, unsightly and bulky than a soldered joint.
COPPER
The material used for hot and cold water pipes, generally 15mm to basins and mains fed taps and 22mm to baths.
DOWN PIPE
The soil pipe that rises vertically through a house from the drainage connecting toilets, baths and basins.
HEADER
The small open cistern, usually referred to as a tank, that feeds the radiator water in central heating.
INDIRECT TANK
This is the hot water cylinder where the water for basins and baths is heated by a coil of piping inside the cylinder or tank. The coil of piping is connected to the central heating system and acts as a radiator.
P TRAP
The toilet waste outlet, which passes horizontally into the drainage system.
PRESSURE SYSTEM
A water heating system for hot water to baths and basins which is sealed. Instead of the vent found in a header tank, a pressure vessel controls pressure. The advantage is that the pressure is high and so good for showers. Current Building Regulations require that if fitting this system, the details are submitted as a formal application for approval.
RISER
A vertical water pipe carrying the mains water supply.
S TRAP
The toilet waste outlet that passes vertically downwards into the drainage system.
SINK
The sanitary ware in a kitchen fed by the mains cold supply direct.
U BEND
A U-shaped pipe system, which maintains a residual amount of the waste water to prevent, smells from the drains coming back into the house.
UPVC
Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride, now increasingly avoided due to environmental restrictions, but still in use for drainage pipes and window frames.
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